Most importantly, farmers,上海419iaries of the toile

et revolution, should be encouraged to actively participate in the program and freely voice thei

r concerns. As the toilet revolution is aimed at increasing farmers’ well-being, their opinions about the prog上海419

ram, especially after it is completed, should be given due importance by the local governments.

上海419Besides, the toilet modernization program should be sustainable in nature. And for that, the of

ficials need to take measures to ensure the toilets’ design and structure can withstand the test of time a上海419品茶微信

nd the facilities can be sustainably maintained. Since the aim of the toilet revolution is not just to accomplish a task assign

上海419ed by the higher authorities, but to revitalize the countryside, local officials should not embellish their performance by p

resenting results that appear impressive but lack substance. Instead, they should a

ttempt to fundamentally improve farmers’ living conditions so they can lead a better life.上海419品茶微信

Jiang Wenlai, a professor at the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

上海419There is a need to pay more attention to sustainability

The toilet revolution has not only improved farmers’ quality of life,

but also brought them some unexpected benefits. For instance, thanks to the significant impr上海419品茶微信

ovement in the living conditions in rural areas, partly due to the toilet revolution, young people living in the city ten

d to spend more time with their parents or grandparents in the countryside. As such, farmers will gra上海419

dually recognize the program’s many benefits and their enthusiasm for the toilet revolution will likely increase.

Also, certain villages’ experiences of the nationwide toilet modernization campaign could be applied elsewhere. For i上海419品茶微信

nstance, the model of integrating toilet renovation with domestic wastewater treatment adopted by Laiwu, Sha

ndong province, not only turns waste into productive commodity, but also significantly lowers the cost of the toilet ren

ovation. This model could be applied to areas with similar conditions and socioeconomic development level.上海419

Moreover, there is a need to pay more attention to the effects and sustainability of the

toilet revolution. To this end, a third-party monitoring and evaluation system sho上海419品茶微信

uld be established to assess the results and ensure the program is properly operated in the long run.

Yu Fawen, a research fellow at the Institute of Rural Development, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences